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Covid Healthline

Global COVID-19 vaccine summary: Side effects

Currently, in various areas of the world, 23 COVID-19 vaccines have been authorized for use. In this feature, we look at the types and their reported side effects.

All data and statistics are based on publicly available data at the time of publication. Some information may be out of date.

As the global effort to produce vaccines that can curb the COVID-19 pandemic forges ahead, headlines continue to highlight development breakthroughs and safety concerns.

This article summarizes the known side effects of the 23 authorized vaccines and provides insight into risks that researchers are still investigating.

Currently authorized COVID-19 vaccines

The table below gives an overview of the 23 authorized vaccines, categorized by type, based on how they function. It also shows their efficacy.

Each of the following vaccines has received use authorization in at least one country.

Name Manufacturer Type of vaccine Efficacy rate
BNT162b2 (Comirnaty) Pfizer-BioNTech mRNA 95%
mRNA-1273 Moderna mRNA 94.5%
TAK-919* Takeda mRNA 94.5%
Ad26.COV2.S Janssen (Johnson & Johnson) Viral vector 66%
AZD1222 (Vaxzevria) Oxford-AstraZeneca Viral vector 81.3%Trusted Source
Covishield** Serum Institute of India Viral vector 81.3%
Ad5-nCov CanSino Viral vector 65.28%
Sputnik V Gamaleya Viral vector 91.6%Trusted Source
Sputnik Light Gamaleya Viral vector 79.4%
Covaxin Bharat Biotech Inactivated 80.6%
BBIBP-CorV Sinopharm (Beijing) Inactivated 79.34%Trusted Source
Inactivated (Vero Cell) Sinopharm (Wuhan) Inactivated 72.51%
CoronaVac Sinovac Inactivated 50.38%
CoviVac (KoviVac) Chumakov Center Inactivated Unknown
QazCovid-in (QazVac) Kazakhstan RIBSP Inactivated Unknown
SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine (Vero Cells) Minhai Biotechnology Co Inactivated Unknown
COVID-19 inactivated vaccine (COVIran Barekat) Shifa Pharmed Industrial Co Inactivated Unknown
RBD-dimer Anhui Zhifei Longcom Protein subunit Unknown
EpiVacCorona FBRI Protein subunit Unknown
CIGB-66 (Abdala) Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Protein subunit 92.28%
MVC-COV1901 Medigen Protein subunit Unknown
COVAX-19 (SpikoGen) Vaxine/CinnaGen Co Protein subunit Unknown
ZyCoV-D Zydus Cadila DNATrusted Source 66.6%

* TAK-919 is the Moderna vaccine produced for Japan.

** Covishield is the Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine produced for India.

For Ad5-nCov (CanSino), Sputnik Light, Covaxin, CoronaVac (Sinovac), CIGB-66 (Abdala), and ZyCoV-D the reported efficacy data are not yet published in a peer-reviewed journal.

The Pfizer COVID-19 vaccine is currently the first and only to have received full approval from a medicine authority in any country. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) grantedTrusted Source this approval on August 23, 2021.

Common side effects

Vaccines allow the body to build immunity by activating T and B lymphocytes, cells that, respectively, recognize the targeted virus and produce antibodies to combat it.
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