Access to clean water and sanitation is a human right enshrined in international law. Although there has been progress in recent years, contaminated water and waterborne diseases remain major threats to public health — not only in low income countries, but also in wealthier nations such as the United States.
On August 3, 2010, the General Assembly of the United Nations (UN) recognized access to clean water and sanitation as a human right alongside other fundamental rights, such as life and liberty, freedom of expression, and education.
These pathogens spread far and wide when untreated human waste contaminates groundwater and open water that people use for drinking, irrigation, bathing, and washing utensils.
In recent decades, there has been progress toward realizing the universal right to clean water and sanitation.
The World Health Organization (WHO)Trusted Source estimates that between 2000 and 2017, the proportion of the global population with access to safely managed drinking water increased from 61% to 71%.
During the same period, the proportion of the global population with access to safely managed sanitation services increased from 28% to 45%.
Despite this progress, however, dirty drinking water and contaminated soil continue to pose a threat to the health of huge numbers of people worldwide.
For example, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)Trusted Source report that among children under 5 years of age, there are 1.7 billion cases of diarrhea and 446,000 deaths from the condition every year globally.
The CDC also says that there are around 3 million cases of cholera, a waterborne infection, and 95,000 deaths from it annually.
As a result of poor sanitation, parasitic worms in contaminated soil infect hundreds of millions of people worldwide every year.
A surprisingly large number of these people live in rich nations. In fact, one study found that between 2013 and 2017, around 1.1 million people in the U.S. had insecure water access.
Almost a half of these people lived in the 50 largest metropolitan areas of the U.S. This included 65,000 people in New York who did not have access to piped water.
Researchers at the University of Arizona in Tucson and King’s College London in the United Kingdom conducted this study. It appeared in the journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences in 2020.
The study revealed that households without running water were more likely to include people of color, to live in mobile homes or rented accommodation, and to spend a higher proportion of their income on housing costs.
“We offer clear evidence that gaps in urban water access are neither random nor accidental but underpinned by precarious housing conditions and systemic social and racialized inequality,” the study authors conclude.
They suggest that their numbers almost certainly underestimate the scale of the problem, as the U.S. Census Bureau tends to undercount people in rented accommodation, people without homes, and people of color.
They point out, for example, that people without homes often face great difficulty accessing clean water and toilet facilities and that their numbers are currently growing in U.S. cities.
Another study confirmed that, although access to water and sanitation is supposedly universal in towns and cities across the U.S., official figures do not account for people without homes or those in substandard housing.
When the researchers took these factors into account, they found that at least 630,000 people did not have access to a flush toilet and that a further 300,000 relied on shared sanitation.
Scientists at the Georgia Institute of Technology in Atlanta conducted this study. It appeared in the American Journal of Public HealthTrusted Source in 2020.
Although the percentage of people without basic sanitation services is low in the U.S., the study authors write, the absolute number is large for “a high income country where resources exist to address the issue.”
They note that people living in rented accommodation may have running water and a flush toilet, but when these facilities break, landlords might take weeks or months to organize repairs.
Both the above studies conclude that introducing measures to ensure affordable and adequate housing is the most effective way to improve access to water and sanitation in U.S. towns and cities.
The report, Closing the Water Gap in the United States, estimates that more than 2 million people in the U.S. do not have access to safe drinking water and sanitation.
However, it reiterates that the U.S. does not collect comprehensive data on water poverty. This has made it particularly difficult to assess the scale of the problem for those who are worst affected: low income communities and communities of color. ….. Continue Reading…….