In our daily life nothing is important, but our diet selection. Before choosing anything to eat, we decide whether particular diet is healthy for us, or not. In this decision, diet containing nutritional values i.e. vitamin and minerals remains our focus. The human body consists of fiber, minerals and vitamins, that’s why for body’s healthy growth minerals plays vital role. Before making any choice relating to our diet, we must act wisely. Nine minerals are essential for better growth of human body.
Calcium for bones.
One of the minerals, which are mostly present in human body, is calcium. An adequate dose of calcium is very important for normal cell function and healthy bones. As calcium is found in every cell of body, this is vital for correct function of bones, heart, muscles and nervous system. Almost 99% of our body’s calcium is in our bones. Since birth, around 30% of our bone structure is changes every year. In this structural change of bones, old mass replace the old one. We should take adequate amount of calcium in order to maintain this balance as well as hormonal function. Bone mass of average human body is at peak between 21 to 24 years of age. While aging human body losses grave bone mass, which can be reduces with due diligence and avoiding calcium deficiency.
Loss of bone mass in elderly women.
Women should consider loss of bone mass, before and after menopausal period. Due to natural loss of estrogen, loss of bone mineral accelerates, and it becomes serious after 10 years of menopause. While getting older, we cannot compensate such minerals loss, which we could in young age.
Reasons for deficiency of calcium.
Such loss of minerals could be due to insufficient amount of calcium (either through diet or supplements). Certain diseases like hyperthyroidism (causing minerals loss) or physical inactivity could be the reasons of bone’s minerals loss. Additionally, alcohol, soft drinks, caffeine, several births, steroid containing medications and certain asthma related medications. Genetic tendency to develop osteoporosis, can also have negative effect on bone health.
How much daily calcium intake.
Asian women are mostly affected with lower bone mineral loss, as compare to Mediterranean and African women. Requirement of calcium varies person to person, based on number of factors as well as daily life routine. However, for elders, people having osteoporosis, women with pregnancy or breastfeeding, values of 800-mg to 1500-mg per-day, have been suggested.
Intestine absorbs calcium to make it part of body, and this ability declines with the passage of time. This is why, peoples more than 60-years of age, should take 1200-mg to 1500-mg in their daily intake. Even 1500-mg of calcium is recommended in case of osteoporosis. Mostly people are frightened to take calcium supplement as it can increase risks of cardiac disease and kidney stones. But they ignores the fact, that, due to chemical based farming, we are already running out of minerals through diet. One should not exceed 2-grams of elemental calcium in daily intake, from any source.
Excess of everything is bad.
Excess calcium will be emitted into urine resulting kidney stones. But don’t worry, our daily diet is very deficient in calcium and other minerals. You can benefit from calcium supplement to maintain calcium balance in your body and avoid osteoporosis in your old age.
Rich sources of calcium.
Dairy products are big source of and enriched with, calcium. 8-ounces of milk as well as skim milk consist of around 300-mg of elemental calcium. Yogurt of similar quantity also contains 300-mg of calcium. Two ounces of processed cheese and one ounce of natural cheese also consist of 300-mg calcium. Cottage cheese and ice cream are also contained calcium but quantity of calcium varies because of size and content. Cream cheese cannot be considered as cheese, as there is very low amount of calcium in it.
Calcium is one of the nine most essential minerals of the body required for better growth. In our daily diet, dairy products are basic source of calcium. It is far more difficult to get adequate calcium without using dairy products in our daily diet. It can be considered as
Among others, turnip greens, collards, salmon with bones and instant farina are also contains around 100-mg of calcium per serving. 2.25 ounces of sardines (with bones) are excellent source of calcium. It would take 29-tsp peanut butter and 14-cups of rice, to give equivalent calcium found in 8-ounces of milk.
Manganese for health:
These minerals are important nutrients and operated by particular enzymes and proteins. Manganese can be found in our routine diet. Although very rare, but manganese deficiency can cause
- Abnormal changes in hear function’
- Neurological abnormalities; and
- Abnormal glucose metabolism.
Sources of Manganese.
Cereal products and whole grains are enriched with manganese and also available in vegetables and fruits. Tea is also a source of manganese. Least daily intake recommended for manganese, is 2-mg to 5-mg. Apart from exposure from work-related activities, toxicity of manganese rarely observed. Although, agreed safe quantity of manganese is upto 10-mg per day, but there are no extra-ordinary benefits of excess intake.
Although there are issues regarding less fluoride in drinking water, but this mineral can easily be found in fresh water. Due to fluoride deficiency one may be most vulnerable to tooth decay. Small amount of fluoride can be found in soil, plants, animal and water. Most of the time it has not been considered as an important mineral, but it’s much important for dental health. Its benefits regarding bone health are still under discussion.
Excess fluoride could be harmful.
Estimated safe range for daily intake of fluoride is recommended as
- 5-mg to 4-mg per day for adults from all sources;
- 5-mg per day for younger individuals;
- 1-mg to 1-mg per day recommended for one year old infants;
- 5-mg to 1.5-mg per day for kids upto 3 years of age.
Fluoride is one of the nine most important minerals of the body, required for better growth. But, more than recommended intake of fluoride can cause chronic conditions like kidney related issues, muscles and nerve problems. Higher intakes have been linked with spotted teeth therefore should be avoided. Although there is no cogent evidence, even some doctors argues that higher intake is inclined to higher rate of cancer.
As compare to protein-shape fluorine provided by food, fluoride can be utilized from readily available source i.e. water. But make sure fluoridation of water should not be low than 0.7-mg per liter.
Iodine and better aging.
Iodine is necessary element for creation of thyroid hormone. These hormones produced through enzymatic processes in thyroid glands and are major factors for regulation of our metabolism. The most ever-present hormone in our body is T4. With circulation in body and getting through series of enzymatic durations, it becomes a more powerful form of thyroid hormone. T4 circulates through muscles, kidney and liver, and almost 80% of T3 is formed by such circulation of T4.
Daily intake and sources of iodine.
In order to maintain hormonal balance and levels of thyroid hormone, almost our daily diet, contains adequate amount of iodine. We requires around 1 to 2 micrograms, of our per Kilogram body weight. Recommended daily intake of iodine between 50 and 1000 micrograms is considered adequate and safe for health.
Seaweed and ocean born sea-foods are rich sources of iodine. Eggs and dairy products have also iodine content, depending feed provided to them. Vegetables also contains iodine, depends iodine quality of soil, in which those were cultivated. In one gram of iodized salt, 76 micrograms of iodine are available. It can also found in commercially sold bread as well as other dairy products.
Iodine deficiency may have dangerous results, as body endeavors to maintain balance of thyroid hormone. In case of low daily intake, body increases production of hormones, which consequently resulted into increased size of thyroid gland. Similarly high intake of iodine can effect and block the production of thyroid hormone and lead to goiter.
Iron for successful aging.
Iron is very important component of life supporting “hemoglobin” which carries oxygen within our red blood cells. It’s a building block of many key enzymes in the body. Liver, spleen and bones are storing around 30% of our body’s iron.
Iron stores in our body in large quantity, therefore there is rare deficiency issues of iron. However, it can occur with loss of blood, or through normal menstruation. Despite of adequate storage of iron, some people having chronic disease cannot utilize iron to produce normal red blood cells. Such inability called anemia of chronic disease. Value of hemoglobin less than 12 grams/dL for women and 13.5 grams/dL for men, signifies anemia.
Sources of iron.
It richly available in fish, meat, vegetables, eggs and fortified cereals. Average storage of iron in men is almost 1000-mg and in women about 300-mg. In case of negative balance this amount is considered as sufficient store, even if not consumed for months.
With no blood-loss, men looses around 1-mg iron per day, however during active menstruation women losses 1.5-mg iron per day. That’s why women, as compare to men, feel weakness during their reproductive years. Recommended daily intake of iron is 10-mg for men and 15-mg for women (who are menstruating). However, post-menopausal women and men have equal requirement of iron i.e. 10-mg per day.
Iron is one of the nine most essential minerals of the body, required for better growth. Although iron toxicity rarely seen, but in case of affection, its toxic level accumulate in pancreas, heart and other organs. It also may lead to life-threatening illness. It has also been argued that excess intake of iron also linked with higher possibility of cardiac arrest. Therefore more than recommended intake, is never advised, unless told so by your physician.
Copper for healthy growth.
Copper can be found in multiple foods, with large amount found in nuts, seafood, liver and seeds. Low consumption of copper in our daily diet can also cause high levels cholesterol, heart relating abnormalities and glucose prejudice. Mostly diets in our routine life, provide 1.5-mg to 3.2-mg of daily intake. Lowest amount of copper for daily intake is recommended as 1.5-mg to 3.0-mg. Even, as of now, there is no toxic effect of copper has been observed in people taking upto 10-mg.
Rich sources for copper includes, oyster, Liver, shiitake mushrooms, spirulina, lobsters, nuts and seeds and dark chocolate.
Chromium for better aging.
For normal glucose metabolism, chromium plays an important role, because it operates as co-factor for insulin action. In labs, animals deficient with chromium observed with diabetes related syndrome and weak glucose tolerance in their system. It is also absorbed through intestine. If your daily intake of chromium is 40-microgram then only 0.5% absorbs by intestine. With deficiency of chromium in blood, people can face higher rate of coronary artery problem or damaged glucose tolerance.
50-micrograms to 200-micrograms is recommended for average daily intake. However, persons taking high quantity, in occupational setting, are vulnerable to bronchial cancer. But there are rare cases of side effects of chromium intake than recommended dose.
To fight against toxic oxidants, selenium plays important role to maintain defence system. In 1979, Chinese doctors reported that there is a link between cardio-myopathy (affecting children and young women) and selenium deficiency. Its deficiency also includes muscular distress.
Selenium is one of the nine most essential minerals of the body, required for better growth. It improves cardiac function. Studies conducted on animals, shows that in order to prevent degenerative diseases and cancer selenium plays an important role. It can be found largely in seafood, liver and kidney organs. Normal diet contains around 100-mircorgrams of selenium per day. However, more than 0.1-mg may cause abdominal pain, symptoms of nausea, irritability and fatigue. Study warns that extremely large quantities of selenium can cause abnormal glucose metabolism which is similar to diabetes. Selenium should be ingested carefully and best way to meet daily necessity is to get it from selenium rich diet.
Zinc for better health.
Zinc is one of particular enzymes which helps to regulate growth, proper immune system functioning and wound healing. It also plays important role for taste buds and sense of smell. Its requirement depends on everybody’s own status. A very large amount of zinc is stored in muscles and bones, despite of this it has short half-life.
Zinc is one of the nine most essential minerals of the body, required for better growth. We absorbed higher amount in shape of soy products, milk, certain grains and meat. Its deficiency can cause food hatred and loss of taste buds and issues with wound healing. In severe case of deficiency, it causes retardation and skin changes. During pregnancy, zinc deficiency can cause development of disorders in child. Similarly men with low zinc can face infertility and low levels of testosterone.
70% of required zinc, we can derive from eggs, meat, seafood and oysters. Other diet sources also contains zinc e.g. brewer’s yeast, cereals and mild beans. Minimum requirement for daily zinc intake is recommended as 15-mg for men and 12-mg for women.
Excessive dose of zinc may impair copper situation in body and disturb iron absorption. This situation further leads to disturb formation of red blood cells and immune system. Excessive use for long period can also cause decrease of good cholesterol. That’s why excess use of 10-mg to 15-mg dose per day is discouraged.
As of now, zinc supplements, other than found in daily diet, are not recommended. However, with high doses of calcium or just vegetables, multivitamin with zinc are suggested. There is no case available to show the benefits of high dose of zinc, therefore excess intake of zinc should be avoided.